Watch all steps of oil and gas formation…
First, it is necessary to have organic matter capable of being transformed into oil and in sufficient quantities; and this is the source rock (1). Second, all the conditions favorable for the transformation (2) (maturation) of this potential oil and gas must be present. Third, the new oil and gas then embark on a journey migration (3) towards the surface. Fourth, during this migration the hydrocarbons must meet a rock capable of hoarding them in large quantities; and this is the reservoir (4). Fifth, this reservoir must be impervious, and a barrier (seal or cap) is therefore necessary to prevent the oil and gas from pursuing their way upwards, and this rock is the seal or cap rock (5). Sixth, in order to accumulate quantities of oil and gas sufficient for profitable exploitation, the substratum must have a form sufficiently large and with a closed geology; this is known as the trap (6). Finally, seventh, once well tucked away – in their trap,, the oil and gas must not be destabilized by attacks coming from the exterior, and good conditions for the preservation (7) of hydrocarbons are necessary.
When teams of petroleum engineers study a zone, one of their principal objectives is to determine if these seven steps have, indeed, a good chance of happening. This seven steps oil system is called an “oil genesis system”.
A transformation of organic matter consisting of living organism those great hydrocarbons: